Anemia is a condition when the red blood cells count in a person is much lower than normal. The red blood cells are responsible for the oxygen supply to the different organs of the body. If there is a deficiency of haemoglobin in the red blood cells then the body is not getting a sufficient supply of iron. Anemia can be detected and confirmed by the CBC (complete blood cell) count. Anemia is a common blood disorder and can be classified into many types depending on the red blood cell’s morphology. Anemia can be caused due to several factors. Some of the symptoms of anemia are restlessness, fatigue, strange increase of heartbeat, feeling short of breath and headache when exercising. There are different types of anemia:
–Acrostic Anemia – Acrostic anemia are of two types, megalobalstic anemia and non-megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is cause primarily due to the malfunctioning of the synthesis of DNA but the working of the synthesis of RNA. This leads to the restricted division of the progenitor cell.
–Microlytic Anemia – Microlytic anemia is due to the failure of the synthesis of insufficiency of haemoglobin. The causes for iron-deficiency type of anemia are common and have many underlying causes.
–Normocytic Anemia – Normocytic anemia is a result of decrease in the Hb levels but a normal RBC size. The cause for this type of anemia may be due to accurate blood loss, anemia due to chronic disease or failure of the bone marrow (Aplastic anemia)
–Heinz body anemia – a condition when there is an abnormality on the cell due to certain medications.
–Dimorphic anemia happens when two or more causes of anemia attack the body simultaneously.
Aplastic anemia is a medical condition in which the bone marrow does not generate enough new blood cells to keep the blood count stable. In aplastic anemia the bone marrow fails to produce the blood cells and this leads to anemia. Although the term anemia is generally used for decreased count of red blood cells, aplastic anemia refers to the decreased count of all the three types of blood cells: white blood cells, red blood cells and blood platelets. One main cause of aplastic anemia is an autoimmune disorder. In this disorder where the white blood cell attacks the bone marrow and hinders the generation of blood cells: this is aplastic anemia. In most cases the cause of aplastic anemia is difficult to determine. Some studies have shown that aplastic anemia may occur due to radiation, benzene and drugs like chloramphenicol, felbamate, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenylbutazone and quinine. Many drugs are thought to be the cause for aplastic anemia but it is a rare occurrence. The following are the symptoms of aplastic anemia:
–Anaemia along with pallor, malaise and their symptoms.
–Low blood platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) which leads to increased risk of bruising, hemorrhage and petechiae.
–Low count of white blood cells (leucopenia) which increases the risk of infection.
–Decrease in reticulocyte counts (reticulocytopenia)
When a person suffers from aplastic anemia he has the symptoms of thrombocytopenia, reticulocytopenia and leucopenia. Alpastic anemia should not be confused with the anemia related to decrease in only the red blood cell count. Confirmation of aplastic anemia can happen after a thorough examination of the bone marrow.