Mexico City is the Federal District, and capital of the United Mexican States and the seat of the federal powers of the Union, of which constitutes one of its 32 states.
Mexico City is the political and economic center of the country and is in turn, the second largest metropolis in the world, only after Tokyo, Japan. The Federal District contributes one fifth of the GDP of the nation of Mexico. Mexico City occupies one-tenth of the Valley of Mexico in central-south, in territory that was part of the lake basin of Lake Texcoco. Mexico, The D. F. is the city’s wealthiest and most populous county with over eight million inhabitants in 2005, and ranks second as a federal entity, behind the state of Mexico.
In its population growth, Mexico City was incorporated into many towns that were in the vicinity. In the mid-twentieth century, its metropolitan area is beyond the limits of the Federal District, and extends over 40 municipalities in the state of Mexico and a municipality in the state of Hidalgo, according to the latest official definition of 2003 local governments, state and federal Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City (MCMA). The MCMA in 2005 was inhabited by 19,331,365 people, nearly 20 percent of the total population of all of Mexico. According to the projections of the National Population Council (CONAPO), as of July 2007 population was estimated to be 8193.899 inhabitants for the city, and 19,704,125 inhabitants for the entire metropolitan area.
The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City occupies the 8th spot on the list of the richest cities in the world with a GDP of 315,000 million dollars that will double by 2020, putting it in seventh place just behind Tokyo, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, London and Paris.
Sites of interest in Mexico City include:
The Piedra del Sol.
The Caballito, sculpture by Charles IV Tolsá.
Moorish kiosk in the Santa Maria la Ribera.
The old ancient cultural heritage of Mexico City contains significant samples of the cultures that have happened over time in the territory. Archaeological sites in the Federal District are many, although some of them are virtually unknown. Among the more important it should be noted is at Cuicuilco, with the oldest building and the Templo Mayor. In the latter site was found pieces of magnificent statuary, Coatlicue as the statue or the Piedra del Sol, two icons representing the pre-Columbian Mexican art. And although the conquest was interrupted with the literary production of native peoples, it has survived to this day through the chronicles of early colonials, which have been investigated and translated by authors such as Angel Maria Garibay K. and Miguel Leon-Portilla.
Although the Spanish colonization meant the disappearance of the lifestyle of the Mesoamerican, it also involved the starting point in the training of Mexican culture today. At that time there was a process of mixing that was observed from the language to artistic expression. Therefore, and especially in the sixteenth century, art and architecture of Mexico City and surrounding villages, was remarkably Xochimilco-mixing elements Indians and Europeans. The Historic Center of Mexico City was filled with large buildings throughout its history, to the degree that there exist 1436 historic buildings spread over 9 km ² surface, many of them of colonial origin. This led to the historic center which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Elsewhere in the Federal District-religious buildings were built as a convent of La Asuncion in Milpa Alta, Xochimilco’s Cathedral or the Basilica of Guadalupe.
The nineteenth century was an era of constant conflicts. In contrast, the government Porfirista worked to modernize the city, and adopted the fashionable French architectural examples of which are the Palacio de Bellas Artes, the Palace Postal colonies. In the nineteenth century, the Academy of San Carlos trained many of the architects and painters Mexicans more representative of the time, among which we must mention the paintings of Jose Maria Velasco producing a large collection of prints nineteenth century landscape of the Federal District
After the Revolution governments emanating from it in the first half of the twentieth century were given the task of promoting culture as a means of legitimization. Architectural works like the Edificio El Moro, Torre Anahuac, Torre Latinoamericana, Building Miguel E Abed, Insignia Tower and the Tower of Tlatelolco were intended to provide an image of a modern city. Public works were built as was the City University.
During the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century, there have been numerous renovation projects of architecture in the capital. Among them are some who point out the construction of Ciudad Santa Fe, Pemex Tower, the Tower Prism, Caballito Tower, the WTC Tower, HSBC Tower, the Freedom Tower, the Tower and Plaza Mayor Juarez.
In 1987, UNESCO inscribed the Historic Center and Xochimilco on the list of World Heritage Sites, an honor that was repeated to the House-workshop of Luis Barragan in 2004 and to the campus of the University of UNAM in 2007.
Mexico has a long and rich architectural and history. You can see more centuries of varying buildings then almost any other spot in the western hemisphere. The architecture of Mexico City is amazing and worth a look at.
Consejo Nacional de Población, México; Proyecciones de la Población de México 2005-2050 Accessed on 2008-09-27.
Consejo Nacional de Población, México; Proyecciones de la Población de México 2005-2050 Total projected population of Distrito Federal and the 60 other municipalities of Zona metropolitana del Valle de México, as defined in 2005. Accessed on 2008-09-27.
Hamnett, Brian (1999) A Concise History of Mexico Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK
“Historia de la Ciudad de México” (in Spanish). Retrieved on 2008-10-14.