Over the past decade, the first wave of nano-science had been surging by. In the meantime, the international and domestic scholars have confirmed to the world that the “build-up” or “build-down” approach to manufacturing of large numbers of nanotubes, as well as the Nanowires, nanoclusters is possible. These efforts have shown that if the nano-structure can be created at low-cost, then the future of the world will soon change for the better. The nano scale is less than 20 nanometer. In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing is less than 70 nanometers at this time which is almost the nano scale. It is believed the structure of the device’s will continue to shrink. In the next 10 years, nano science and technology will be possible within the semiconductor industry and possibly other industries as well. In this article we will discuss nano-science and technology in the new period of development.
Key words: nano-science and nanotechnology nanotubes nanowire semiconductor nanoclusters
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology – the Second Revolution
Research in the area of nano-science has attracted worldwide attention. For example, the U.S. saw in the fiscal year 2001a 83 percent growth in the nano field of research, reaching 500,000,000 U.S. dollars in research spending. There are two main reasons that have led to the nano-science. The first reason is that the nano-structure is small enough so that quantum mechanical effects dominate, for example, quantum effects and the separation of the energy state, as well as single-electron Coulomb blockade deep Wear, and so on. In addition to the cause of these phenomena on the basis of physical interest, it also gives us new devices and features prepared by the realization of the ideas and concepts, for example, single-electron transport devices such as lasers and quantum dots. The second reason is that in the semiconductor industry has continued miniaturization of devices. According to the “road to the international semiconductor technology (2001)” magazine in 2005, before the dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and microprocessors (MPU) of the expected feature size down to 80 nanometer, and MPU devices in the gate length is expected to drop To 45 nanometer. However, at this time the semi-conductor business does not know the solution of the problems being faced in progress. Similar problems are expected to appear in the DRAM manufacturing process. Semiconductor device feature size is not only to reduce the depth of the new requirements to ensure that lithography can cut the smaller-scale. Therefore, the solution will be based on quantum effects to create a new mechanism to operate these devices, so that the small size of the physical features of the device is useful and necessary and not harmful.
If we can create nanoscale devices, we will certainly have learned a lot. For example, in electronics, single-electron transport devices such as single-electron transistors, tubes and electronic turnstile pump have brought us many of the benefits of micro-scale. These operations that led to the ultra-low power consumption, power dissipation is also significantly reduced, as well as bringing much faster switching speed. In the opto-electronics, quantum dot lasers show a low threshold current density, low threshold current temperature dependence, as well as the large differential gain advantages, which can produce large differential gain modulation bandwidth. In the sensor applications, nanotechnology and nano-detector sensors to measure extremely small amount of chemical and biological elements, but also opens the possibility of detecting cells, which will result in Biomedicine in the mini-invasive diagnostic techniques. Nano-scale quantum dot devices and other applications, such as ferro-magnetic memory devices quantum dots, quantum dot spin filter and spin memory, etc., have been suggested, we are certain that these applications will give us many potential benefits.
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